Graduate Work on Airspace Classes
The Aeronautical Chart Users Guide has all the symbols used on any FAA chart.
Use the legend to Identify all airspace on the sectional chart.
Class A - not depicted - 18,000 - 60,000 MSL. Alaska exception - FAR 71.31(b) - excludes altitudes above 18,000 that is 1500 AGL or less, and the Alaskan peninsula from 160 degrees and westward.
Class E - 1200 AGL, unless otherwise designated (see note on the legend) Sfc - 18000, 700-18000, 1200-18000, As indicated (scalloped lines or printed altitude next to a cyan vignette) and above 60,000.
Class G - Below Class E. Stops at 1200 AGL unless bordered by a cyan vignette. Then SFC up to but not including 14,500 MSL.
Class C - T means class B stops where class B starts. See the airspace above KHWD.
Class B plus symbol, like on NYC class B, means the altitude after the plus symbol is not included in this shelf of Class B.
Cloud clearances and visibilities. There are only 5sm 1 mile clear of clouds, 3 miles clear of clouds, 3 miles - 500 below, 1000 above, and 2000 feet horizontally, 1 mile - 500 below, 1000 above, and 2000 feet horizontally, 5 miles - 1000 feet above and below and 1 mile horizontally.
Entry requirements: B - clearance, two-way radio, mode c transponder. C - establish two-way communications, mode c transponder in, above but not below. D - Establish two-way radio communication. E - Tramsponder above 10,000 MSL. G - None.
Speed limits: Above 10,000 MSL <Mach one. Below 10,000 MSL 250 KIAS except below class B or in a corridor, within 4nm of class C or D airspace at or below 2500 MSL - then 200 KIAS.
ADS-B: Anywhere a transponder is required and within 12 nm of the US coastline in the Gulf of Mexico between 3000-10,000 MSL. Above 10,000 MSL is only in the CONUS.
RVSM: Between FL290-FL410 Inclusive. Separation reduced from 2900 - 1000 ft. The airplane needs additional equipment. The pilot needs to pass a training course. ATC can assign an RVSM altitude if not RVSM equipped if they want to.
Oxygen requirements. 91.211(a) - Crew - above 12,500 to 14,000 for more than 30 min. Crew - continuously above 14,000. Passengers provided with O2 above 15,000.
Oxygen requirements 91.211(b) - Pressurized airplanes: Above FL250, each occupancy must have at least a 10-minute supply of O2. Above FL350, when the cabin pressure exceeds 14,000 ft, one pilot must wear an O2 mask secured and sealed that provides continuous O2 except when operating below FL410, and each pilot has a quick dining mask that can be worn within 5 seconds then neither pilot needs to wear a mask unless one pilot leaves the flight controls. In that case, the other pilot must wear a secure and sealed mask with continuous O2.
Maximum Permissible speed - 91.817.
Class E above 18,000 MSL? Alaska. Mount Denali area.
TRSAs - Class C level service, including certified radar controllers. Participation is voluntary.
SUA - Alert, MOAs, Warning - No authorization. Restricted - Clearance. Prohibited - Clearance and prefiled.
MTRs - Military training routes. VR - VFR. IR - IFR. 3 digits mean above 1500 AGL. 4 digits indicate below 1500 AGL.
SFRA - Special Flight Rules Area. Washington DC - 50 nm outer ring. The pilot must complete an online training course, file a DVFR flight plan, and obtain an ATC clearance. The inner ring is the FRZ - Flight Restricted Zone. Entering the FRZ requires an ATC clearance and a TSA PIN. This PIN must be applied for with the TSA by application. You can’t get the PIN from ATC.
Controlled firing areas - Not charted. It uses a spotter to stop activity when aircraft are observed.
Continental control area - only in the CONUS Above 14500 MSL and within 12 nm of the coastline. The highest altitude in CONUS is Mt Whitney, just below 14,500.
DME required FL240 and above but only if operating on an airway.